It is now too well-settled that every State action, in order to survive, must not be susceptible to the vice of arbitrariness which is the crux of Article 14 of the Constitution and basic to the rule of law, the system which governs us. Arbitrariness is the very negation of the rule of law. Satisfaction of this basic test in every State action is sine qua lion to its validity and in this respect, the State cannot claim comparison with a private individual even in the field of contract. This distinction between the State and a private individual in the field of contract has to be borne in the mind. The meaning and true import of arbitrariness is more easily visualized than precisely stated or defined. The question, whether an impugned act is arbitrary or not, is ultimately to be answered on the facts and in the circumstances of a given case.

An obvious test to apply is to see whether there is any discernible principle emerging from the impugned act and if so, does it satisfy the test of reasonableness. Where a mode is prescribed for doing an act and there is no impediment in following that procedure, performance of the act otherwise and in a manner which does not disclose any discernible principle which is reasonable, may itself attract the vice of arbitrariness.

Every State action must be informed by reason and it follows that an act uninformed by reason, is arbitrary. Rule of law contemplates governance by laws and not by humour, whims or caprices of the men to whom the governance is entrusted for the time being. It is trite that be you ever so high, the laws are above you’. This is what men in power must remember, always.Almost a quarter century back, this Court in S.G. Jaisinghani v. Union of India and Ors., [1967] 2 SCR 703, at p.7 18-19, indicated the test of arbitrariness and the pitfalls to be avoided in all State actions to prevent that vice, in a passage as under:”In this context it is important to emphasize that the absence of arbitrary power is the first essential of the rule of law upon which our whole constitutional system is based. In a system governed by rule of law, discretion, when conferred upon executive authorities, must be confined within clearly defined limits. The rule of law from this point of view means that decisions should be made by the application of known principles and rules and, in general, such decisions should be predictable and the citizen should know where he is. If a decision is taken without any principle or without any rule it is unpredictable and such a decision is the antithesis of a decision taken in accordance with the rule of law. (Dicey–“Law of the Constitution”-Tenth Edn., Introduction cx).In Shrilekha Vidyarthi Vs Union of India

“Law has reached its finest moments”, stated Douglas, J. in United States v. Wunderlick, (*), “when it has freed man from the unlimited discretion of some ruler … Where discretion is absolute, man has always suffered”. It is in this sense that the rule of law may be said to be the sworn enemy of caprice. Discretion, as Lord Mansfield stated it in classic terms in the case of John Wilker (*), “means sound discretion guided by law. It must be governed by rule, not humour: it must not be arbitrary, vague and fanciful.” After Jaisinghani’s case (supra), long strides have been taken in several well-known decisions of this Court expanding the scope of judicial review in such matters. It has been emphasized time and again that arbitrariness is anathema to State action in every sphere and wherever the vice percolates, this Court would not be impeded by technicalities to trace it and strike it down. This is the surest way to ensure the majesty of rule of law guaranteed by the Constitution of India.

Every discretionary power vested in the executive should be exercised in a just, reasonable and fair way. That is the essence of the rule of law. In United States V Wunderlich (1951) 342 US 98 Law has reached its first finest moments when it has freed man from the unlimited discretion of some ruler, some civil or military official, some bureaucrat. Where discretion is absolute, man has always suffered .At times it has been his property that has been invaded, at times his privacy; at times his liberty of movement; at times his freedom of thought; at times his life. Absolute discretion is a ruthless master It is more destructive of freedom than any of mans other invention. John Wilkes (1770) 4 Burr 2528 . Discretion means sound discretion guided by law it must be governed by rule not humor; it must not be arbitrary, vague or fanciful. In a state of governed by the rule of Law, discretion must be confined within clearly defined limits. A decision taken without any principle or rule is the antithesis of a decision of a decision taken in accordance with the rule of Law.In a State governed by the rule of law , discretion can never be absolute. Its exercise has always to be in conformity with rules; in contradistinction to being whimsical and should not stand smack of an attitude of “ so let it be written, so let it be done”. It is important to emphasize that the absence of arbitrary powers is the first essential of the Rule of Law upon which our whole constitutional system is based. In a system governed by the rule of law, discretion when conferred by upon executive authorities, must be confined within clearly defined limits. Aeltemesh Rein, Advocate, Supreme Court Of India Vs Union Of India And Others  (AIR 1988 SC 1768)

Where an act is arbitrary it is implicit in it that it is unequal both according to political logic and constitutional law and is therefore violative of Art. 14.   State Policy : The sweep of Article 14 covers all state action .Non arbitrariness and fairness are the two immobile and unalterable cornerstone of a legal behaviour baseline. Every action even a change of policy in any relam of state activity has to be informed fair and non arbitrary. In E. P. ROYAPPA Vs.STATE OF TAMIL NADU & ANR.

An authority, however, has to act properly for the purpose for which the power is conferred. He must take a decision in accordance with the provisions of the Act and the statutes. He must not be guided by extraneous or irrelevant consideration. He must not act illegally, irrationally or arbitrarily. Any such illegal, irrational or arbitrary action or decision, whether in the nature of legislative, administrative or quasi-judicial exercise of power is liable to be quashed being violative of Article 14 of the Constitution.    In Neelima Misra Vs Harinder Kaur Paintal And Others (AIR 1990 SC 1402)

The constitutional power conferred on the Government cannot be exercised by it arbitrarily or capriciously or in an unprincipled manner; it has to be exercised for the public good. Every activity of the Government has a public element in it and it must therefore, be informed with reason and guided by public interest. Every action taken by the Government must be in public interest; the Government cannot act arbitrarily and without reason and if it does, its action would be liable to be invalidated. In KASTURI LAL LAKSHMI REDDY Vs. STATE OF JAMMU AND KASHMIR & ANOTHER

In legislations enacted for general benefit and common good the responsibility is far graver. It demands purposeful approach. The exercise of discretion should be objective. Test of reasonableness is more strict. The public functionaries should be duty conscious rather than power charged. Its actions and decisions which touch the common man have to be tested on the touchstone of fairness and justice. That which is not fair and just is unreasonable. And what is unreasonable is arbitrary. An arbitrary action is ultra vires. It does not become bona fide and in good faith merely because no personal gain or benefit to the person exercising discretion should be established. An action is mala fide if it is contrary to the purpose for which it was authorised to be exercised. Dishonesty is discharge of duty vitiates the action without anything more. An action is bad even without proof of motive of dishonesty, if the authority is found to have acted contrary to reason. In MAHESH CHANDRA Vs. REGIONAL MANAGER, U.P. FINANCIAL CORPORATION AND ORS ( AIR 1993 SC 935)

It is now well-settled as a result of the decisions of this Court in E. P. Rayappa v. State of Tamil Nadu,  and ….. the decisions of this Court in E. P. Rayappa v. State of Tamil Nadu (supra) therefore, and Maneka Gandhi v. Union of India, (1978) S.C. 248, that Art. 14 strikes at arbitrariness in State action and ensures fairness and equality of treatment. It requires that State action must not be arbitrary but must be based on some rational and relevant principle which is non-discriminatory: It must not be guided by any extraneous or irrelevant considerations, because that would be denial of equality.The principle of reasonableness and rationality which is legally as well as philosophically an essential element of equality or non-arbitrariness is projected by Art. 14 and it must characterize every State action, whether it be under authority of law or in exercise of executive power without making of law. The State cannot, therefore, act arbitrarily in entering into relationship, contractual or otherwise with a third party, but its action must conform to some standard or norm which is rational and non-discriminatory. In Ramana Dayaram Shetty Vs International Airport Authority Of India And Others (1979 AIR(SC) 1628 ) .

The expression “arbitrarily” means: in an unreasonable manner, as fixed or done capriciously or at pleasure, without adequate determining principle, not founded in the nature of things, non-rational, not done or acting according to reason or judgment, depending on the will alone. In M/S SHARMA TRANSPORT REP.BY SHRI D.P.SHARMA Vs. GOVERNMENT OF A.P. & ORS.(AIR 2002 SC 322 )

A case of confirment of power together with a discretion which goes with it to enable proper exercise of the power and therefore it is coupled with a duty to shun arbitrariness in its exercise and to promote the object for which the power is conferred which undoubtedly is public interest and not individual or private gain, whim or caprice of any individual. In AP Aggarwal vs Govt of NCT of Delhi (AIR 2000 SC 3689)

Any state action executive , legislative  or judicial is void if it contravenes Art 14. In Budhan v State of Bihar (AIR 1995 SC 191)

A statute may expressly make a discrimination between persons or things or may confer power on an authority who would be in a position to do so. Official arbitrariness is more subversive of the doctrine of equality than statutory discrimination. In respect of a statutory discrimination one knows where he stands, but the wand of official arbitrariness can be waved in all directions indiscriminately. In State Of Andhra Pradesh And Another Vs  Nalla Raja Reddy And Others (AIR 1967 1458 )

The absence of arbitrary power is the first postulate of rule of law upon which out whole Constitutional edifice is based. In a system governed by Rule of Law, discretion when conferred upon an executive authority must be confined within clearly defined limits. If the discretion is exercised without any principle or without any rule, it is a situation amounting to the antithesis of Rule of Law. Discretion means sound discretion guided by law or governed by known principles of rules, not by whim or fancy or caprice of the authority.  In Som Raj vs State of Haryana ( AIR 1990 SC 1176 )

The Author is a practicing Advocate in the Supreme Court of India

  1. kriti said:

    this article is definitely an eye opener for citizens who are always in awe of the powers of the state.suggestively people along with reading about their rights must read their significance through the means of natural justice and rules of law for their better understanding.

  2. Anshul Agrawal said:

    is arbitrary action also not the violation of article 16 ??as it was held in e.p royappa v. state of tamil nadu,
    Art. 16 embodies the fundamental guarantee that Arts. 14 as there shall be equality of opportunity for all citizens in matters relating to employment or appointment to any office under the State. Though enacted as a distinct and independent fundamental right because of its great importance as a principle ensuring equality of opportunity in public employment which is so vital to the building up of the new classless egalitarian society envisaged in the Constitution, Art. 16 is only an instance of the application of the concept of equality enshrined in Art. 14. Article 14 is the genus while article 16 is specie. Article 16 gives effect to the doctrine of equality in all matters relating to public employment. The basic principle which, therefore, informs both article 14 and 16 is equality and inhibition against discrimination.

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